March 23, 2007

How Electricity is generated and brought to consumer?

Electricity is form of energy and is basically a flow of electrons in its naturally occurring state. It can be observed from battery cell or regulated electric mains supply

The Generation of electricity in a power station is a process of energy conversion. Electricity can be generated from burning of oil, coal, gas or from nuclear reaction (uranium, plutonium) or moving water (hydro electricity).

The steam passes into a turbine which consists of narrow blades rightly mounted on a shaft. The blades are moved by the flow of steam and rotate the shaft at a high speed. Almost like the action of wind turning a windmill. After passing through the turbine steam enters a condenser where it is condensed into water and pump back to the boiler for heating and to repeat the cycle. The generator consists of a rotor and a stator. The rotor is an electromagnet made of a number of windings mounted on a shaft. This is joined to turbine shaft. The stator is a stationary coil. As the turbine shaft rotates, rotor turns and by electromagnetic induction. Alternating current is produced in stator.

The electricity generated in the stator is then raised to a high voltage so that it can be more economically transmitted to wider area. Electricity needs a medium to flow in and this normally occurs in conducting cable laid underground or through overhead wire.

At the substation transformers with high voltage and low voltage windings step down the voltage to a level suitable for use in homes, industries, hotels and buildings

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